Ornis Hungarica. vol.8 Suppl. 1.. (1998) p.169-175.
Migration and wintering of the Penduline Tit (Remiz pendulinus) in the Carpathian Basin
The autumn migration of the Penduline Tit was studied using data from birds captured between I July 1991 and 31 December 1993 in the Fenékpuszta (Western Hungary) camp of Actio Hungarica. Long-distance recaptures were also analysed using the 105 foreign recoveries ringed and 85 Hungarian recaptures of foreign-ringed birds, from a total of 14393 birds caught in Hungary between 1974 and 1993. The autumn migration was characterized by a smaller first and a larger second wave. The first wave took place between 10 July and 7 September, with a peak that changed yearly. The majority of the birds captured during this period were young. Most of the recaptures came from a distance of <400 km, with a mean migratory direction of 180.7'. The second wave fell between 18 September and 6 November, with a peak between 8-12 October every year. These birds arrived from a distance of 4-900 km, with the mean direction of migration being 220. 1'. Wing length and body weight of birds of the second wave were bigger than those in first one. Recaptures indicated that Penduline tits from the Carpathian Basin migrated through the Istrian Peninsula to the Po lowlands, Italy. Populations migrating through the Carpathian Basin breed east of the river Elbe, in. Baltic, Polish, German and Moravian territories. Birds coming from these areas also winter in the Italian Mediterranean coasts and to a lesser extent in Southern France (Camargue).